Tantra and Hinduisation
The medieval period meant especially in Southern India that pastoral farmers, hunters and gatherers belonging mainly to non-Aryan aboriginal population were incorporated into emerging warrior states277. This mostly happened through deforestation and expansion of irrigated agriculture. For these aboriginal tribal areas the belligerent warrior culture and the migration of Brahmins meant the seizure of their sacred sites, the enforcement of caste and class structures (the non-Aryans were often given the status of untouchables), the subordination or exchange of their gods with Siva, Vishnu and other Puranic gods. Female goddesses like Durga and Sakti were incorporated as an aspect of Siva or Vishnu. Aboriginal tribal rituals were transformed or modified and Brahmins or Saiva ascetics were now in charge. This aggressive cultural repression is often called by historians the Hinduisation of tribal people.278 It is out of this clash that Tantra emerged. Tantra and Hinduisation are closely linked.
Hinduisation kicked off the history of Tantra. About 600 AD, in the very beginning of the medieval period, these new kind of scriptures emerged in outlying tribal areas settled by Brahmins and temples (Sharma 2000). These texts often had the word Tantra’ in their title line. Often the literature was composed to serve the needs of the local aboriginal ethnic groups (like forest people, pastoral nomads, shepherds, hill men, gatherers and hunters) who had succumbed to feudal Brahmanism and petty kingdoms. In the Tantras, non-Aryan local rites and occult practices were systematised and described. Sometimes a Tantra would signify a local group’s resistance and identity building. At other times a Tantra would signify the assimilation and incorporation of non-Aryan culture into Brahmin caste society. Behind a Tantra there would often be found Brahmins. In the eyes of the locals there were for local Brahmins many benefits of adopting Tantra. Acquisition of this new occult skill and knowledge allowed the Brahmin to avert the negative effects of planets and spirits and put spells on enemies. The Brahmins, enriched by Tantric symbolic capital fitting the habitus of the aboriginals, attained thereby an important function in the local society.
Bend your elbows wide, keeping your body straight and the Yoga poses for 9 year olds ball still, then straighten. Hop feet off ball to finish. Repeat to 10 times Yoga poses for 9 year olds . 8 Prone Moves on the Ball People usually love to lie face down on the ball it seems relaxing and they assume they won’t have to work that hard. Oh, how wrong they are! Just because you’re lying on your stomach doesn’t mean you can’t really work your muscles: Think about push-ups you’re not technically lying down, but you are face-down, and that’s a killer move! The prone position allows you to strengthen the back of your body the muscles in your back and along your spine, as well as the backs of your legs. The muscles of your back include the trapezius just below your neck, the rhomboids below your shoulder blades, the latissumus dorsi the sides of your back and the erector spinae the small muscles that run along your spinal column. If you’re someone who sits at a desk all day, your back muscles are probably stretched forward and weak. If you lift heavy objects, or kids, you probably have imbalances in your back muscles.
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