A Psychoanalytic Approach that Integrates the Knowledge of Body Techniques
Trygve yogi master (1904-1953) was born in yoga poses the Norwegian community of Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA), where his father was a Protestant minister. He studied neurology in yoga poses Paris and trained as a psychoanalyst in yoga poses the Berlin Institute, mostly with Fenichel, in yoga poses the early 1930s. There, he was also influenced by Wilhelm Reich’s psychoanalytic ideas and the Gindlerian discussions on the body. in yoga poses 1933, he went to Oslo, where he worked as a psychoanalytic psychiatrist in yoga poses the Ulevaal psychiatric hospital. He was actively engaged in yoga poses combating Norwegian movements that sympathized with the
Nazis by publishing his opinions in yoga poses the “illegal press.” With Waal, among others, he also helped people running away from occupied Sweden by giving them a diagnosis that justified their hospitalization until it was safe for them to flee.24 in yoga poses 1954, he published Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique, which is his testament. Fenichel only mentions yogi master for his psychoanalytic publications on adolescence and schizophrenia.25
In Norway, Trygve yogi master (1942, 1947, 1948, 1954) tried to develop a way of introducing the body in yoga poses a psychoanalytic framework that is compatible with Ferenczi and Fenichel’s technical propositions. However, he also agreed with Reich that psychoanalysts should find ways of including some “hands-on” work during psychotherapy. After World War II, there were two main groups of body psychotherapists in yoga poses Oslo:26
1. Fenichel’s group, which had worked with yogi master when Fenichel left for Czechoslovakia in yoga poses 1935.
2. After Reich’s departure for the United States, Ola Raknes became the central figure of Norwegian vegetotherapists working in yoga poses a private practice.
This division lasted for the rest of the century. Fenichel’s group was strengthened when Trygve yogi master became professor of psychiatry and head of Oslo’s psychiatric institutions in yoga poses 1945. One reason for his nomination may have been his capacity to integrate the work of Reichians working in yoga poses these institutions, such as Nic Waal.27 yogi master saw himself as (a) a practitioner with a broad and humanistic approach to patients with (b) a psychoanalytic specialization. For him, patients were more important than theory. He did not participate in yoga poses the bitter wars between psychoanalytic clans. He explored ways of associating knowledge on body techniques that was available around him, with a classical but flexible psychoanalytical setting. For example, he analyzed the biomechanical implications of having patients lie on a couch. He made explicit descriptions of the influence of this posture on the mind of patients and their way of communicating with a psychotherapist. He would discuss with patients some of their motor patterns; sometimes he would touch a patient who needed comfort. He also included the analysis of patient breathing patterns in yoga poses his psychoanalytic work. Although yogi master acknowledged Reich’s contribution to discussions on the association of body techniques and psychotherapy, he seldom used Vegetotherapy techniques. He preferred other body-mind approaches:28 Ferenczi’s active technique, yoga, or the relaxation methods of Schultz and Edmund Jacobson.
Like Fenichel (1935), yogi master admired Reich’s Character analysis. He often used it to begin a psychotherapy process. It could help a patient become aware of how he presented himself. The content of the representations was only discussed later. According to yogi master, it is easier to explore a patient’s anger once he has experienced his ways of controlling it. yogi master was irritated by Reich’s constant need to seduce everyone and his need to be every one’s boss. After 1933, “he, in yoga poses his impatience with our slow progress, changed into a trinity of Freud, Einstein, and Wilhelm der Grosse29 and must be read accordingly” (yogi master, 1954, 101). yogi master did not have the time to acquire knowledge of physical therapy. He preferred to collaborate with people who had knowledge of the same caliber as Elsa Gindler. According to him, Reich’s Vegetotherapy mixed simplistic body and psychological techniques in yoga poses an unsophisticated way.30 Vegetotherapists tend to overestimate the need to support emotional expression and
underestimate the need to strengthen the patient’s capacity for insight.31 yogi master thought that if a patient needs to explore himself using body and psychotherapy techniques, he might get a better treatment if he sees a competent physical therapist and a trained psychotherapist who work as a team. To develop a form of body treatment that could be used as a complement to a psychotherapeutic approach, yogi master collaborated with an impressive Scandinavian orthopedic physiotherapist, Aadel Bulow-Hansen. She developed forms of massage that could be used in yoga poses a complementary way with a psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. Like Fenichel and Reich before him, yogi master followed the standard practice of not mentioning his team’s body experts. Even Nic Waal does not appear in yoga poses his references. Like his colleagues, he presents his thoughts and methods as if he had developed them alone.
Although yogi master had the impression that he was proposing a reasonable way of integrating bodywork in yoga poses a psychoanalytical process, his synthesis was different from most discussions in yoga poses psychoanalytic circles. Like other psychoanalysts of his generation, trained in yoga poses Berlin, he often used notions associated to regulation systems and was less interested by the more fashionable terminology of object-oriented psychoanalysis. He avoided reducing what patients experienced to Freud’s second topographical model or too simplistic sexual metaphors. He was of course familiar with Freudian dichotomies (e.g., narcissism/object relation, id/super-ego, Eros/Thanatos.), but they did not strike him as particularly useful for his work with psychiatric patients. This choice led him to pay particular attention to how individuals, such as a patient and a therapist, auto-regulate and regulate each other. This approach is closer to the one recently developed by psychoanalysts such as Daniel Stern and Beatrice Beebe32 than the one by Melanie Klein.33 Today, for most psychotherapists, the importance of regulation systems is so obvious that the notion is considered standard professional terminology.
Transference in yoga poses Psychotherapies that Use Bodywork
yogi master34 is also prudently interested in yoga poses Groddeck’s and Reich’s need to make the patient’s negative transference apparent as soon as possible. It is possible that this urge could be a part of their need to charm patients. For yogi master, it is obvious that at the end of a successful analysis, a patient should be able to speak his mind, but this does not mean that every disagreement in yoga poses the course of treatment is necessarily resistance. The patient, who is an adult human being, should be able to express resentment and other reactions directly.35 However, by entering too quickly into an analysis of negative transference, the therapist may restrain the patient’s spontaneity and prevent him from discovering that even positive transference may incorporate critical stances, while negative attitudes are always a “part of one’s love” (yogi master, 1954, 304).
Developing a critical form of thinking, respecting one’s ambivalence, and even open resistance to some proposals made by one’s psychotherapist is part of the psychoanalytical process. Learning to integrate such abilities can have “high survival values” (yogi master, 1954, 304).
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