So the Orientalists and Hindu reformers, by relying on Brahmin scriptures, replicated Brahmin orthodox discourse and unwittingly reproduced their orthodox ideology. It was an ideology making the Brahmins into custodians of truth ingrained in old texts which only they understood and which embodied their caste power.
Colonial middleclass, Evangelicalism and Hinduism
A decisive driver in creating the modernist colonial yoga culture as we know it today was the new Indian town-based middle classes – the bhadraloks (Wikipedia link). They arose as an integral part of the modern British state and its accompanying modernist institutions. They became an important part of British rule that the Indian colonial middle class working for or with the colonial state was educated in Western culture, law and sciences. From about 1850 a system of universities and colleges was in place in India.83 Many students became doctors, administrators, chemists, engineers, professors and lawyers. They came to represent a kind of modernist hybrid class of overlapping global and local cultures and processes. They came to represent a hybrid habitus shaping the yoga sign in new revolutionary ways. Hence the bhadraloks experienced and read the world through combined global and local eyes. Within this new middle class arose political ideas about reforming both Indian culture and society, which they like many Europeans also saw as degenerate. The first Westernised Hindu reformers emerged in the early 19 century with names like Ram Mohan Roy and Debendranath Tagore.
Yoga terms Lengthen your sides. Return to center. Repeat on Avoid turning. Stand with your left side a few inches Yoga teacher training from a wall. Lift your left arm high. Test whether you are more comfortable with Yoga teacher training the palm side or the little finger side of your hand on the wall. Firm all arm muscles and retain the upper arm well within the shoulder joint. Inhale, lift up through your torso, and lean sideways toward the wall until your hip and possibly your shoulder area touch the wall. Gradually intensify this side stretch during several breaths. You can step a little farther from the wall for a deeper stretch.