The socio-political dynamics of Tantra – Hinduisation
Feudal India – background of Tantra
Many historians274 term the period from 500-1500 AD – from the breakdown of the Northern based Gupta Empire to the rise of the Mughal Empire – medieval India. The two German historians H. Kulke and D. Rothermund have developed a useful historico-regional model of India in Geschichte Indiens (2006). They suggest that in this medieval or feudal period new power regions emerged along rivers, deltas and fertile areas south of the northern region. In these regions societies had grown into hierarchical states developing their own cultures on equal terms with the northern region. India south of the Indus-Ganges region had formed itself into four new dynamic power and cultural centres. As all India’s regional societies were socio-economically de-centralised and as they did not have the necessary technological-economical resources or organisational structures, no single region was any longer able to dominate the sub-continent. That is, a system of balance of power had emerged which was further reinforced in that each regional dynasty tended to collapse from within after a short while because of its de-centralised structure.
As Southern and central Indian regional states grew in size in the same way as in the northern region 500-1000 years earlier, there developed a socio-political system, where defeated kings and rulers paid tribute to the victorious king. This system of tribute was called samanta and implied that independent neighbours’ of the king’s core area had to acknowledge the king as the overlord. The local rulers and vassals attended the king’s court and were often given courtly responsibilities. The king would also remunerate loyal supporters by granting them areas to rule in his own core area. This Indian political system had the effect that as soon as the central power weakened, one of the local vassals or kings would grab the opportunity and take over.
Repeat 5 times on each side. ADVANCED Alternating Straight Leg 9 yoga poses for long lean legs Extensions Lie over the ball with a straight body knees and shins on top of the ball 9 yoga poses for long lean legs and your hands on the floor in a push-up position. Keeping your hips perfectly even, lift one straight leg off the ball. Return and repeat with your other leg. Repeat 10 times. 91 ADVANCED Grasshopper Lie over the ball in a prone position with your upper thighs slightly turned out on the ball, your feet together and knees pointed out in a slight V, with your elbows on the floor. Lift both knees off the ball, while squeezing your butt. Do not tilt your pelvis or raise your back.