After the disintegration of the Gupta empire there was almost a collapse in foreign and internal trade. This meant that most northern towns degenerated and their population or artisans, warriors, administrators and priests had to migrate into the countryside (Nandi 1986). In the south, from about 500 AD, a royal system of granting newly-gained agricultural land to the Brahmins and temples became widespread (Heitzman 1997; Chattopadhyaya 1994). It was a system initially developed by the Guptas and used increasingly as their empire fell apart and was very similar to the samanta system mentioned previously. As royalty appointed vassals and the Brahmins settled as landowners and temple priests, local forest people and migrant workers from non-Aryan India were incorporated as land tenants and peasants paying tributes (Nandi 2000b). The new Brahmin feudal landlord and temple priest in turn collected taxes for the new local and regional kings. About 900 AD as trade recovered, new urban centres and markets emerged, mainly in Southern India. It was this decentralised feudal society where Brahmin culture and caste society met local tribal non-Aryan culture that gave birth to Tantra275.
The king was just one among several exploiters: feudal vassals, Brahmins and temples controlled and extracted economic surplus from its local population. So compared to earlier periods the regional state was in some respects weakened by feudal structures. Despite its weakness, the state and its rule of law was still strongly legitimised and hold together by the religious culture – as in the Axial Age. As in Europe, the institutions and power structure of feudalism and the Middle Ages were legitimised by a hegemonic religious field and its and professional holy men – in Europe institutionalised by the Catholic Church. In India it became the era of Saivism.
Be sure to keep your spine in neutral and your abs 9 yoga poses to open your shoulders engaged. When you’re done, round your back like a hissing cat to stretch and reverse 9 yoga poses to open your shoulders the curve of your spine. Repeat 5 times on each side. 88 ADVANCED Prone Double Hamstring Curl BENEFITS: Lifts your butt. Lie prone over the ball and roll forward, resting your hands on the floor to stabilize your shoulders. Be sure to keep your neck and shoulders relaxed and stretched away from each other. Your hips and thighs should be on top of the ball. Lift both knees off the ball, squeezing your butt and hamstrings away from the ball.
9 yoga poses to open your shoulders Photo Gallery
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