Why Does an Organism Need Nightmares?
The individuals traumatized by war responded only moderately well to psychoanalytical treatment. The psychoanalysts had an especially difficult time understanding why some horrible nightmares regularly haunted the soldiers after the war once the organism was no longer menaced. They had the impression that their patients latched on to these images that intruded into their psyche, not only at night but sometimes during the day. To answer this clinical question, Freud asked himself if it were possible to explain everything with a deviation of the pleasure principle. This same pleasure principle is also incapable of explaining the horrible drives that were expressed in yoga poses by the masses during World War I, with no one capable of understanding their usefulness. Because of these observations, as well as others of a similar kind, Freud felt forced to postulate the existence of a destructive instinct (Thanatos) of self and others that is at least as powerful as the need to create pleasurable experiences (Eros).66 Thanatos creates a compulsion to repeat painful situations.
Before 1914, Freud refused to accept the criticisms of Jung, Adler, and Bleuer, who could not see how one could construct a psychiatric theory by affirming that everything organized itself around the pleasure principle. The destructive human tendencies are evident in yoga poses psychiatry or as soon as one studies the history of humanity. Jung and Bleuer preferred to adopt a traditional position of vitalism They believed that all the dimensions of the organism are animated by a basic energy. This energy is then used by a variety of propensions such as the sexual need, domination, aggression, and so on. Jung’s vital force contained as much shadow as it did light, as much destructive as constructive creativity. Because they refused to accept the primacy of the libido, Freud engineered their expulsion from the Psychoanalytic Association before World War I.67
Behold, in yoga poses The Ego and the Id (1923a), Freud rejoins his old protagonists, at least partially, when he writes that the energy that animates the affects and thoughts is neutral and takes on erotic or destructive aspects. But he refuses to recognize that this reformulation was influenced by his discussions with Jung. in yoga poses 1912, Sabina Spielrein consulted with Freud with regard to her private and therapeutic relations with Jung. Freud encouraged her to publish, in yoga poses a psychoanalytic journal, an article on the death impulse. There was probably a thread of thoughts that go from Jung to Spielrein and from readers of Spielrein to Freud’s Thanatos. in yoga poses 1926, in yoga poses Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety, he distinguishes the mechanisms of the repression of the libido on the one hand and the repression of anxiety on the other.68 This analysis was taken up by Melanie Klein (1955) to explore the destructive human tendencies in yoga poses normal individuals, without any discernible psychopathology, that seem to be already in yoga poses place in yoga poses the very young child.
It is useful to clearly distinguish the Second yoga topography from the vantage point of the Thanatos hypothesis. These two models were developed during the same period but in yoga poses parallel. Wilhelm Reich adopts the first model and rejects the second, whereas Melanie Klein blends them together. Others, like Otto Fenichel, differentiate them, all the while using them in yoga poses parallel fashion. in yoga poses the psychoanalytic literature of the start of the twenty-first century, I still find many discussions based on revised versions of Freud’s Second yoga topography and very few that evoke the innate instinct to destroy. Having said this, the pleasure principle is also less omnipresent. Fenichel (1934) already insisted more on a defense system that protects from the pain of anxiety than on a psyche ready to risk everything to satisfy a desire to maximize the experience of pleasure. Psychoanalysis today, which long ago left the enclosure of neurosis, attempts to integrate the complexity of the violence of abuse, perversion, and dependence without having recourse to simplistic metaphors.69
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