In Hinduism, the ninth incarnation of Vishnu Buddhism the religious Yoga poses on stomach tradition that developed out of the teachings of the Buddha chakra -literally wheel, the seven Yoga poses on stomach five in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition energy centers of concentrated prana citta mind, or heart Devi the Great Goddess dharana concentration, the sixth limb of astanga dharma duty, virtue dhyana meditation, the seventh limb of astanga dukkha suffering, pain Ganesha the elephant-headed Hindu deity, son of Parvati and Shiva gunas the qualities of the mind and of nature guru spiritual teacher or guide Hatha Yoga forceful yoga, the aim of which is to combine physical postures and breathing so as to unite the opposing energies of the body Integral Yoga a comprehensive system of yoga that combines Raja Yoga, Japa Yoga, the repetition of a mantra, Hatha Yoga, kriyas, Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, and Jnana Yoga japa repetition of mantra jiva life, the individual soul, or essence jivamukti the liberation of one’s essence Jnana Yoga a system of yoga that emphasizes inquiry and insight Karma Yoga the path of yoga based on action that encourages detachment from results and emphasizes selfless behavior kriya action, or practice kundalini the obstacle located at the base chakra that blocks the upward flow of prana, the kundalini is often depicted as a coiled serpent Mahabharata the epic poem written sometime between 500 B.C.E. and 300 B.C.E. in which the Bhagavad Gita is inserted Mahayana the school of Buddhism that promotes the bodhisattva ideal the renunciation of personal.
liberation to stay in this world and be dedicated to helping others mandala a spiritual diagram offering a symbolic representation of the universe, incorporating sacred geometry, often used as a visual aid for meditation mantra a sacred sound or word often used as a tool in meditation moksha liberation, same as mukti mudra symbol; in Yoga, a symbolic gesture nadi a channel through which prana flows within the subtle body niyama personal attitude, discipline; the second limb of astanga OM the primordial sound, one of the most sacred mantras padma lotus padmasana the lotus posture Panini a Hindu scholar credited with codifying Sanskrit Patanjali the author of the Yoga Sutras prakrti nature, cosmic manifestation prana life force, breath pranayama breath control, the fourth limb of astanga pratyahara sense withdrawal, the fifth limb of astanga purusha spirit, or unseen energy.
Raja Yoga a system of yoga that incorporates the eight limbs but whose emphasis is on meditation sadhana personal practice samadhi deep concentration, liberation, the eighth limb of astanga Sanskrit the sacred language of India and of Yoga satsang a religious gathering centered around a spiritual guide shakti spiritual energy or power siddha a liberated being, a perfected yogi Surynamaskara a specific sequence of asanas known as the sun salutation sutra thread tantra technique Tantra Yoga a system of yoga that emphasizes the unblocking of prana through practices that are often disregarded by other yogic systems tapas purification, austerity ujjayi the victorious breath, a pranayama technique that focuses on the evenness and sounds of forceful breathing often used in Astanga Yoga Upanishads the mystical teachings of the end of the Vedas, from which the foundation for Hinduism was laid Vedanta the end of the Veda, a designation for the Upanishads Vedas knowledge, the collection of spiritual hymns of divine revelation that provide the earliest known mentionings on Yoga, thus forming the very first basis for the philosophy vinyasa the fluid sequence of postures, breath-synchronized movement Vishnu one of the gods of the Hindu Trinity, known for his creative potency and many reincarnations yama our attitudes to our environment and the world, the first limb of astanga, self-control yoga sadhana yoga practice yogi one who practices yoga Some information in this glossary is from A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism by Karel Werner Chicago: NTC Publishing Group, 1997.
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