A riddle is lurking in yoga poses the region of affects. (Sigmund Freud in yoga poses a letter to Wilhelm Fliess, November 7, 1899, in yoga poses Freud, 1904)
It Is Time to Change!
And then World War I broke out; everything around Freud had changed. He was at the head of a movement that unceasingly asked him to provide guidance on how to practice Psychoanalysis and the recommendations relative to a particular cure. His colleagues were, at the same time, intelligent, dynamic, and often unstable in yoga poses the sphere of their personal identity. They were on a search; they believed that Freud could give them a frame which, all at the same time, could orient them, support them, and allow them to express everything that they feel and think. Psychoanalysis became a career path, a source of income. Twice already, the psychoanalytic movement split because it was unable to reconcile so many demands. Adler and Jung had supported the creation of the psychoanalytic movement and admired Freud; both wanted him to accept their ideas. But it was not possible. Freud accepted only the formulations that he could understand and integrate. Therefore, they each founded their own psychoanalytic movement. Freud’s psychoanalysis nonetheless remained the trunk, the reference point in yoga poses the field of psychotherapy. A trunk that has branches becomes a tree.
There was suffering and anguish but also satisfaction in yoga poses all of these adventures. Freudian psychoanalysis became visible in yoga poses the academic and psychiatric world from the Urals to the Rocky Mountains. Freud, Jung, and Ferenczi were invited by Clark University in yoga poses the United States to present their thoughts.43 There, they met the first psychoanalysts who were established in yoga poses the region and William James of Harvard University. The psychoanalysts had a journal. in yoga poses entering the marketplace of official theories, psychoanalysis must accept a harsh competition that is sometimes led by powerful personalities. Some of these reactions were ferociously opposed to Freud’s formulations. The psychoanalysts developed their own arsenal to confront this opposition.
Then there was war: a horrible, idiotic, and nasty war.44 Friends and colleagues fought each other in yoga poses the trenches. He worried about his sons, who were fighting in yoga poses the Austrian army. There was also less money, fewer patients. Editors had difficulty finding enough paper to publish the writings of the psychoanalysts. Colleagues no longer dared travel. Freud had time on his hands. He reflected. He wrote. He undertook an overall revision of all the models that he had set forth.45 in yoga poses editing what was supposed to be a kind of synthesis of his work, he began to nail down the flaws in yoga poses his theory more explicitly. He vaguely sensed that psychoanalysis must change gear.
He wrote Metapsychology to define the questions that he had to answer. He defined and then modified the five models that seem to him to have the greatest need of review and correction: the instincts and their vicissitudes, the notion of repression in yoga poses the defense system, the unconscious, and his theory of dreams. He also incorporated his understanding of depression into all of this.
Depression is not a neurosis, but he was thinking about it already in yoga poses his correspondence with Fliess. He deeply sensed that Psychoanalysis must address pathologies other than just neurosis if it wanted to become a general theory of psychotherapy. Jung had already discussed this with him by showing that Freud’s understanding did not allow an approach to the treatment of those suffering from psychoses. Freud summarized the benefits of this discussion in yoga poses refining his reflections on narcissism. He must also assimilate all of the discussions on transference and countertransference that his colleagues were about to place at the center of psychoanalytic preoccupations, while he remains mostly interested in yoga poses an intra-organismic psychology.
Like many practitioners who were establishing themselves, Freud had long hoped to find a solid academic research position that would permit him to practice psychotherapy as a secondary career. He held on to the ambition that one day he would be able to synthesize the neurology, psychology, and philosophy that he had studied in yoga poses medical school. His First yoga topography contained many formulations that could easily be used in yoga poses academic discussions. For example, we have already seen that his psy system included a theory of thought close to that of Descartes. His writings on the relationship between the dynamics of the libido and the mind attempted to be compatible with a certain view of the nervous system.46
At almost 60 years old, Freud grieved these ambitions, and resigned himself to the idea that it would be future generations who will fulfill this dream47 The researchers who will relate neurology and psychoanalysis will require resources to which the practitioners in yoga poses Freud’s day did not have access.48 On the other hand, if a practitioner furnishes a precise clinical description, associated to a model that makes explicit the reasoning of the practitioner, he may inspire the researchers of tomorrow and help them know on what to concentrate to relate clinical and experimental research. in yoga poses other words, Freud continued to want to create explicit and detailed models and to further explicate, as much as possible, the procedures used in yoga poses Psychoanalysis. From then on, he focused on practical and technical issues that could improve the efficiency of psychotherapy. He had to tinker with models that support a clinical exploration in yoga poses those areas which scientists have no means to study:
We know two kinds of things about what we call our psyche (or mental life): firstly its bodily organ and scene of action, the brain (or nervous system) and, on the other hand, our acts of consciousness, which are immediate data and cannot be further explained by any sort of description. Everything that lies in yoga poses between is unknown to us, and the data do not include any direct relation between these two terminal points of our knowledge.49 (Freud, 1938, I, 144)
Consequently, the regions the psychoanalysts explore are situated in yoga poses a waste ground, still poorly explored, between consciousness and the brain. It was not possible at the time to propose a coherent theory of the mind. in yoga poses trying to resolve the contradictions that remain in yoga poses his theory, Freud initiated a great reformulation of psychoanalytic theory by proposing his Second yoga topography. This reformulation provides the means for certain psychoanalysts to explore different ways to integrate somatic and behavioral approaches to psychoanalysis. That said, the Second yoga topography resolves certain problems and creates others. Consequently, the coherence of psychoanalytic theory was not reinforced in yoga poses the end.
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