FREUD’S SECOND yoga topography
As I have already remarked,54 the traumatizing events of World War I had an enormous impact on the development of the treatment for soldiers. in yoga poses participating in yoga poses this collective effort, psychoanalysts showed everyone that they could propose useful forms of therapeutic interventions. At the same time, they were placed in yoga poses direct competition with other approaches like those of Goldstein and Cannon. These initiatives could only propose forms of intervention that were still works in yoga poses progress. The psychoanalysts had to work with a new clientele that could not be treated in yoga poses the comfortable and warm-hearted intimacy of an individual private practice. Hospitals became their principal workplace. It was no longer a question of asking the patients to have a session of psychotherapy each workday of the week for at least one hour. The psychoanalysts were obliged to adapt their theory to their practice. This allowed Freud, with the help of his collaborators, to calibrate the changes that he was about to put in yoga poses place. Here are a few salient traits that characterize this mutation:
1. The end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the fall of the Kaiser transformed Austria into a small republic. She retained a radiating artistic and intellectual activity up to World War II, but her glory was already fading. The center of Psychoanalysis was displaced first to Berlin and then to New York. Today, psychoanalysis is a discipline that is firmly planted in yoga poses many European countries and the Americas. Freud became less and less the center of the developments in yoga poses Psychoanalysis even if he remains a central reference.
2. The reputation of psychoanalytic work on trauma made it possible for a number of physicians, who were also psychoanalysts, to enter into most of the medical services to treat soldiers.55 The trauma of war, depression, anxiety, suicidal tendencies, and even various psychoses became the pathologies that required profound transformations on the part of psychoanalysis. An increasing number of psychoanalysts direct psychiatric institutions.
3. Freud responded to this demand (a) by replacing his First yoga topography (unconscious, preconscious, and conscious) with a Second yoga topography (id, ego, and super-ego); and (b) by finally admitting that the organism is, sadly, not only enliven by the search for pleasure (Eros) but also by destructive inclinations (Thanatos).
4. The required changes were not only theoretical but also practical. Some of Freud’s students, such as Ernst Simmel, acquired a certain form of independence from psychoanalysis as practiced by Freud by exploring psychotherapeutic techniques less costly in yoga poses time and involvement on the part of the patient than classical psychoanalysis. There arose a great variety of psychotherapies of psychoanalytic inspiration. These explorations of techniques are organized around a theme that Ferenczi calls the active techniques. The psychoanalyst is no longer content to listen and interpret, and he often sits more or less facing the patient.
This turn of events permitted a creative proliferation in yoga poses the area of techniques that encourage an increasing number of psychoanalysts to question themselves about the utility of relating the psychoanalytic approach to body and behavior therapy approaches.
Finally, around 1923, Freud learned that a cancer was growing in yoga poses his jaw and threatens one of his dearest pleasures: smoking a cigar. He preferred to die rather than stop smoking. This cancer was often brought up as a cause of his growing pessimism, but it could also have obliged him to integrate the notion of corporality more explicitly into his theoretical elaboration.