The meteoric rise of Saivism – the discourse of inclusion
Medieval India became a period where ruling classes adopted a belligerent military culture, according to R. Davidson in Indian esoteric Buddhism – a Social History of the Tantric Movement (2002). Maybe this was due to the system of balance or maybe it was an original part of the new regional cultures. Before, the king was often seen as a protector securing peace for the people – a culture of chivalry; now however war and military destruction was seen as a sexual and divine play where the heroic warrior-king expressed his divinely violent nature, power and authority. This was expressed in the ideal of the cakravartin – a world-ruler who was obliged to conquer and rule the world. The king was, in other words, legitimised as a warrior. When this was combined with an ideology making the king divine, it became a lethal cocktail for the sub-continent, according to Davidson.
As in the Axial Age, but perhaps now even more so, kings were turned into deities and gods into kings. This was clearly seen in those of the Puranas, conceived during this period. Divine life force was embodied in the king and bestowed on his reign. The subcontinent now became densely populated with fortresses, castles and armed encampments. In this culture of military adventurism all social groups had to adapt or die.276 In this new environment a new religious discourse evolved and through its successful adaption to power structures it rose to prominence: Saivism.
Straighten one leg out from the bent position, then lift 9 yoga poses to stay fit it off the floor to hip-height. Return to the starting position and repeat with 9 yoga poses to stay fit the other leg. Do this 10 times on each side. ADVANCED Prone Straight Leg Lift with Push-Up BENEFITS: Strengthens your chest, back, triceps, glutes, and hamstrings. Roll over the ball through prone position and into push-up position. Lift one leg off the ball, keeping both hip bones on the ball. Roll the ball forward, bend your elbows, and bring your torso down. Roll the ball back under your lower legs and repeat with the other leg.