WITH ABRAHAM: THE CLUB OF THE YOUNG PSYCHOANALYSTS OF TOMORROW
Karl Abraham was first trained by Bleuer and Jung at the Burgholzli psychiatric hospital in yoga poses Zurich. His unconditional admiration for Freud created sparks that accentuated the tensions between Freud and Jung. He established a psychoanalytical society in yoga poses Berlin in yoga poses 1908. After the war, this society grew rapidly. It was joined by personalities such as Ernst Simmel and Max Eitingon. Simmel had developed, during World War I, interventions of psychoanalytic inspiration for traumatized soldiers. Eitingon was a Russian millionaire who had trained in yoga poses Psychoanalysis with Freud in yoga poses Vienna, Ferenczi in yoga poses Budapest, and Jung in yoga poses Zurich. Eitingon decided to sponsor a psychoanalytical clinic with the support of Simmel and the protective sympathy of Abraham It was asked of each practitioner to contribute to the existence of the clinic, either by seeing a patient free for a year, or by giving 4 percent of the income from one’s practice.57 The treatments in yoga poses the clinic were often free. Patients were asked to pay what they could if they were not poor. A section of this clinic, directed by Melanie Klein, treated children.58
The project worked so well that Abraham and his colleagues were overwhelmed by the demand for training others in yoga poses analysis. “Many came to Berlin because the Berlin Poliklinik offered the most rigorous and structured education in yoga poses psychoanalysis in yoga poses the world” (Makari, 2008, 372). in yoga poses 1923, the Berlin society and clinic decided to establish “a formal teaching institute with clear requirements” (ibid.). The structure of this first training institute has remained, from then on, the reference for other such training programs around the world. Each individual who wanted to become a psychoanalyst in yoga poses Berlin was required to have taken courses in yoga poses psychoanalysis, had personal psychoanalysis with a training analyst, and also individual supervision something that had not been formally required.59 This structured formation quickly attracted candidates, not only from Germany (Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Edith Jacobson) but also from Austria (Melanie Klein and Helen Deutsch), England (Edward and James Glover), Hungary (Michael Balint, Sandor Rado, and Franz Gabriel Alexander), Norway (Nic Waal and Olga Raknes60), and even the United States (Trygve Braatoy61). All these therapists are discussed today.
The important point here is that Freudians wanted to keep control of their training procedures and refused all advice (from Bleuler, for example) that encouraged them to include their discipline in yoga poses an academic curriculum.62 This choice was one of the most explosive positions defended by Freud: creating a liberal profession, based on intellectual skills that cannot be acquired in yoga poses a university.
When Karl Abraham died in yoga poses 1925, Eitingon and Simmel ensured the continuation of the institute and the outpatient clinic by recruiting the help of some young colleagues, such as Franz Alexander, Sandor Rado, and Karen Horney.63 This movement in yoga poses psychoanalysis, which then developed in yoga poses the United States, neglected the First yoga topography (the conscious/unconscious opposition) and focused on the Second yoga topography.
OTTO FENICHEL ENCOUNTERS CLARE NATHANSON AND DISCOVERS THE GYMNASTICS OF GINDLER
In 1922, Otto Fenichel left Vienna for this Psychoanalytic Institute.64 He entered into analysis with Sandor Rado. From 1924 onward, he became one of the trainers of the institute.65
Otto Fenichel met a pupil of Elsa Gindler named Clare Nathanson.66 She used Gindler’s method with children who suffered from tuberculosis. According to Clare, a mutual friend introduced them to each other: “I thought, ‘Poor guy, he does not know it is the body!’ And he, of course, thought ‘She does not know it is the mind!’” (C. Fenichel, 1981, 6). They fell in yoga poses love and married. Financially, Otto was doing well. He was able to find an apartment sufficiently large for Clare to be able to conduct Gindler gymnastics classes. They had one daughter, whom they named Hanna.67 During this period, Fenichel began to follow regularly Gindler’s course for men to try to rid himself of the terrible migraines that no physician had been able to cure. The Psychoanalytic Institute and Gindler’s school were only a 10-minute walk from each other.68 Gindler’s courses treated Fenichel’s migraines so well that he became even more interested in yoga poses her method. He asked Clare to come to the Psychoanalytical Institute to present Gindler’s work. These presentations were followed with open discussions. in yoga poses 1927, Otto gave a presentation at the institute on the way to integrate certain aspects of Gindler’s work into psychoanalytical thought.69
One of the impacts of these discussions was to further differentiate psyche, physiology, and body. in yoga poses Vienna, from Freud to Reich, the psychoanalysts did not dare abandon the notion that the psyche is structured by the way it is grounded in yoga poses the biological dynamics of the drives. This remains true in yoga poses Berlin, but the discussions concerning Gindler’s work and psychoanalysis made it clearer for the two camps that the work on the body mobilizes different organismic resources than the work on the psyche. From the psyche’s point of view, the world of thoughts is not the same as the one we perceive starting from the body; reciprocally, the world of body sensations is not the same when we start from the psyche or from real movements. It is as if the psyche imposes a view of the body to function well; the body also imposes a view of the psyche to function well. The same goes for the drives. Different aspects of a drive are mobilized when they are coordinated with the psyche, behavior, or the body. This understanding has clear implications in yoga poses a practice. According to Fenichel and Gindler, the two approaches can help a person through different means that have a different type of impact. However, each approach has limits and areas of fuzziness. Using both approaches in yoga poses a single session could increase the area of confusion and diminish the impact each discipline can provide. This practical point of view became clear for Fenichel and for Gindler, who, it seems, never changed their minds thereafter.
On the theoretical plane, these considerations are more difficult to define because clearly the same psyche perceives everything that happens. We had to wait for the modular models to understand that the psyche is a subentity of the organism, and that, like the organism, the psyche is composed of millions of modules that can relate in yoga poses thousands of ways, in yoga poses function of the dynamics mobilized in yoga poses the organism. It is therefore possible that it is not the same organization of the psyche’s modules that emerges at the occasion of an introspection that aims at thoughts or at the occasion of an introspection that aims at the coordination between movements and respiration. If this is true, then the mind does not function in yoga poses exactly the same way during a gymnastic course or during a psychotherapy session.