Early-yoga and the competition for symbolic capital
The Sramanas ideologically challenged the orthodox Brahmins in 6-500 BC. But over time this dividing line – ascetic vagrant versus Brahmin – became blurred, as some heretic Brahmin clans took up ascetic mendicant lifestyles . 211 In the end all the groups were symbolic specialists operating in the cultural field of liberation . From about 500 AD most Brahmins -after almost 1000 years – finally fully embraced ascetic living. The Brahmins from then on even tried to monopolise renouncing as their scriptures claimed that only Brahmins – the purest of all castes – could renounce (Gross 1992, Olivelle 1993 &1995). Heterodox vagrant lifestyles were assimilated into Brahmin society over hundreds of years. Slowly and reluctantly the Brahmins adapted.
We have already discussed why the Brahmins adopted . We have seen in this chapter evidence for how austerities and ascetic lifestyles – to which much early yoga subscribed -increased an adept’s social status. So by adopting ascetic lifestyles and yoga liberation discourse the Brahmins could build up symbolic capital (like increased caste purity). Many social milieus and institutions increasingly devalued Brahmin ritualism. Asceticism often became a superior alternative to ritual action in order to generate symbolic capital like caste purity.
Standing variation Place the belt around your upper shins to maintain Yoga grand rapids alignment of the lower legs. Bend your knees and lean forward slightly, hands on your Yoga grand rapidships. Strongly widen your thighs, from the hips to the Yoga grand rapids knees, and breathe, keeping your spine long. After several deep breaths, release the Yoga grand rapids action and stand back up. This pose offers a good opportunity to practice intense effort without holding your breath or becoming agitated. Trust the process of building strength and awareness. Purpose: To rotate the spine, mobilize its joints, and learn how to stabilize the pelvis while twisting. Contraindications: Herniated cervical or lumbar nucleus pulposus, spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, total hip replacement.