Vedic societies Upasana
Axial Age civilisation Tapas
Shamanism Sociological Habitus & semiotic code
Asceticism & symbolic value Ascetic Brahmin lifestyle
Axial Age ontology Three parameters of proto-yoga
Dhyana & element meditation Philosophical lifestyles
When did yoga begin? Did it evolve in a linear way from earlier Northern Indian societies and their Vedic religious beliefs stretching back to the arrival of the Aryans about 1500 BC? Some believe yoga is even earlier and can be traced back to the Indus Valley civilisation (3300-1300 BC). This chapter places the conditions for the surfacing of yoga clearly in the world-shattering transformation that Northern India experienced commencing about 6-500 BC. As we go through this period it should become clear that yoga could not have evolved before this period; the conditions were not there.
Almost all popular books and many academic books on yoga portray its history as originating within the Vedic tradition. It is an image originally constructed by the Brahmins themselves, but in the last couple of hundred years it has been re-invigorated by Hindu nationalism, Western Orientalists and yoga popularisers in East and West. Today this construction dominates public perception. Hence this chapter spends some pages showing that this is not and probably could not be the case: yoga technologies and ideas could not have evolved among the Brahmins, as they would have threatened the social power of these groups. The emergence of yoga has to be found among other groups.
Intensity can be varied by how the back leg is positioned Yoga pants for women . Purpose: To safely stretch the rectus femoris, iliopsoas, and adductors, improving hip Yoga pants for women extension. Contraindications: Ischial or prepatellar bursitis, medial or lateral meniscal or anterior or posterior cruciate tears, knee effusion. Prop: A chair Avoiding pitfalls: As in all hip extension movements, when the leg goes back, the lower back may arch too much. Work into it slowly, and contract and lift your abdominal muscles the whole time to support the lower back. Sit sideways on the front edge of a chair, with your left thigh fully on the chair seat and your right leg hanging straight down off the front edge. Lean forward and use your hands on the chair as needed for stability. Firm all the leg muscles, and widen your buttocks and thighs, as in the Pressure Cooker 73.